Some useful information about potential difficulties for bilingual Chinese learners.
N.B. Chinese is written, Cantonese (and Mandarin) is spoken.
- Sentence structure is very short, although subject/verb/object order is the same (man wash car)
- No articles: the/a/an
- Chinese often uses nouns not pronouns eg Teacher talk (he talks)
- Verbs don’t inflect is/are/eat/eats – these are conveyed with other language structures
- There are no tenses: yesterday cat jump = yesterday the cat jumped, I tomorrow shop = I’m going shopping tomorrow
- No singular and plural: 1 dog, 2 dog
- I/me are the same word, likewise he/him etc
- There are almost no prepositions
- Phrasal verbs eg sit down, go on, think over don’t exist
- Hesitate/hesitant/hesitation are not obviously different
- No negative questions eg You’re not hungry are you?
- Intonation – Cantonese has no intonation eg You are hungry vs You are hungry? (Cantonese is tonal eg the pitch of a word varies to change meaning)
- Consonant problems: Van/fan, vet/wet, Sue/zoo, thin/tin, three/fee, think/sink, those/dose, right/light, see/she
- l/n at the beginning of a word are interchangeable in Cantonese, without affecting meaning
- Vowel sounds heed/hid, bet/bat,
- Consonant clusters are difficult eg train, creap, crisps
- The last letters are dropped eg hand/hands, eat/eats, ki/kicks, po-corn/pop-corn
Centre for Language Education